Die Scientology-Organisation bezeichnet sich selbst als Kirche im Sinne einer Analogie zu etablierten Religionsgemeinschaften. Mitglieder traditioneller und. Die Statistik bildet die globale Verteilung der hauptamtlich tätigen Scientology-Mitglieder ab (laut Angaben von Scientology). Elisabeth Moss.
Globale Verteilung der hauptamtlich tätigen Scientology-MitgliederDie Statistik bildet die globale Verteilung der hauptamtlich tätigen Scientology-Mitglieder ab (laut Angaben von Scientology). Nachdem einige führende Mitglieder der Church of Scientology Hubbards Organisation und Führungsstil als zu autoritär betrachteten, gründeten diese in den. Doch es gibt auch prominente Mitglieder, die der Organisation kritisch gegenüber stehen. ScientologyTeaser. Foto: Montage: Getty Images 1/ Welche Stars.
Scientology Mitglieder Scientology Stars: Diese Promis gehören zu der Sekte VideoScientology - Diese Stars sind dabei! Dustin Hoffmann. Elisabeth Moss. John Travolta und Kelly Preston. the-mac-lady.com › Spannende Bildergalerien zu vielen Filmen & Serien. the-mac-lady.com: Weltweit auf Mitglieder-Fang Die Ziele von Scientology gehen auf ihren Gründer zurück, den US-amerikanischen Scien. David Miscavige is the ecclesiastical leader of the Scientology religion. From his position as Chairman of the Board Religious Technology Center (RTC), Mr. Miscavige bears the ultimate responsibility for ensuring the standard and pure application of L. Ron Hubbard’s technologies and Keeping Scientology Working. Shrouded in secrecy, the Church of Scientology, which was founded in by American author L. Ron Hubbard, is one of the most controversial religions in the the-mac-lady.com the decades since its inception, the church has come under fire for its stance on psychiatry, its high costs, its alleged mistreatment of members, and, most basically, its legitimacy as a religion at all. Scientology is represented by a large number of independent associations or Vereine in Germany; their umbrella organisation is the Scientology Kirche Deutschland e.V. Germany's domestic intelligence service, the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz (BfV, or Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution), estimates that there are 4, Scientology devotes vast resources to squelching its critics. Since Hubbard and his church have been the subject of four unfriendly books, all released by small yet courageous publishers. In each case, the writers have been badgered and heavily sued. In den Fünfzigern eröffnete L. SKD mit Sitz in München. Stand: Es wird gemunkelt, dass Scientology in Hollywood viel Einfluss hat und seine Mitglieder darin unterstützt, es im Showbusiness weit zu bringen. Und selbst wenn dies wenig bis gar nicht belegbar ist, sieht man anhand der folgenden berühmten Vertreter der Organisation, dass Scientology in den obersten Riegen Hollywoods ziemlich gut vertreten the-mac-lady.com: Diana Heuschkel. Tom Cruise und Will Smith machen in der Öffentlichkeit gerne mal einen auf Jünger und werben eifrig für die Scientology. Doch es gibt auch prominente Mitglieder, die der Organisation kritisch. Gut ausgebildete Fachleute (z.B. Juristen, Manager, Ärzte und Unternehmensberater) sind für Scientology von großer Bedeutung, da diese, wenn erst einmal emotional an die Organisation gebunden, ihre Kenntnisse und Fähigkeiten und natürlich ihre finanziellen Mittel einbringen.
Auch er zählt zu den bekanntesten Gesichtern der Sekte: Schauspieler John Travolta und seine Gattin Kelly Preston sind seit eh und je treue Anhänger der Glaubensgemeinschaft und werben öffentlich für die zweifelhaften Thesen des Scientology-Gründers L.
Ron Hubbard. Travolta ist sogar felsenfest davon überzeugt, dass die Sekte ihm zu seinem Ruhm verholfen habe. Ob Fernsehauftritt oder Veranstaltungen - Kirstie Alley, Schauspielerin spielte sie in "Kuck mal, wer da spricht!
Auch Schauspieler Will Smith sympathisiert mit Scientology, seine Ehefrau Jada Pinkett Smith bekannte sich sogar öffentlich zu der Organisation.
Das Paar ermöglichte den Bau einer Schule, in der Kinder nach Scientology-Vorgaben unterrichtet und erzogen werden.
Der US-Amerikaner gründete die "Church of Scientology". The Church developed outreach programs to fight drug addiction, illiteracy, learning disabilities and criminal behavior.
These have been presented to schools, businesses and communities as secular techniques based on Hubbard's writings. The Church of Scientology began its " Volunteer Ministers " program as a way to participate in community outreach projects.
Volunteer Ministers sometimes travel to the scenes of major disasters in order to provide assistance with relief efforts.
According to critics, these relief efforts consist of passing out copies of a pamphlet authored by Hubbard entitled The Way to Happiness , and engaging in a method said to calm panicked or injured individuals known in Scientology as a " touch assist ".
Accounts of the Volunteer Ministers' effectiveness have been mixed, and touch assists are not supported by scientific evidence. The Church of Scientology is one of the most controversial religious organizations.
A first point of controversy was its challenge of the psychotherapeutic establishment. Another was a Time magazine article that attacked the organization, which responded with a major lawsuit that was rejected by the court as baseless early in And a third is its religious status in the United States, formalized when the IRS granted the organization tax-exempt status in It has been in conflict with the governments and police forces of many countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada,  France  and Germany.
Reports and allegations have been made, by journalists, courts, and governmental bodies of several countries, that the Church of Scientology is an unscrupulous commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and brutally exploits its members.
Scientology social programs such as drug and criminal rehabilitation have likewise drawn both support and criticism. Stephen A.
Kent , a professor of sociology, has said that "Scientologists see themselves as possessors of doctrines and skills that can save the world, if not the galaxy.
In plain English, the purpose of Scientology ethics is to eliminate opponents, then eliminate people's interests in things other than Scientology.
Many former members have come forward to speak out about the Church and the negative effects its teachings have had on them, including celebrities such as Leah Remini.
Remini spoke about her split from the Church, saying that she still has friends within the organization whom she is no longer able to speak with. Much of the controversy surrounding Scientology stems from the criminal convictions of core members of the Scientology organization.
In , a number of Scientologists, including L. Ron Hubbard's wife Mary Sue Hubbard who was second in command in the organization at the time , were convicted of perpetrating what was at the time the largest incident of domestic espionage in the history of the United States, called " Operation Snow White ".
This involved infiltrating, wiretapping, and stealing documents from the offices of Federal attorneys and the Internal Revenue Service.
Ron Hubbard was convicted in absentia by French authorities of engaging in fraud and sentenced to four years in prison. An FBI raid on the Church of Scientology's headquarters revealed documentation that detailed Scientology's criminal actions against various critics of the organization.
In " Operation Freakout ", agents of the organization attempted to destroy Paulette Cooper , author of The Scandal of Scientology , an early book that had been critical of the movement.
Nine individuals related to the case were prosecuted on charges of theft, burglary, conspiracy, and other crimes. In , Scientology president Heber Jentzsch and ten other members of the organization were arrested in Spain on various charges including illicit association, coercion, fraud, and labor law violations.
In October , the Church of Scientology was found guilty of organized fraud in France. In , Belgian prosecutors indicted Scientology as a criminal organization engaged in fraud and extortion.
Scientology has historically engaged in hostile action toward its critics; executives within the organization have proclaimed that Scientology is "not a turn-the-other-cheek religion".
Many of Scientology's critics have also reported they were subject to threats and harassment in their private lives.
According to a Los Angeles Times article, Scientology had largely switched from using Church members to using private investigators, including former and current Los Angeles police officers, as this gives the organization a layer of protection in case investigators use tactics which might cause the organization embarrassment.
In one case, the organization described their tactics as "LAPD sanctioned", which was energetically disputed by Police Chief Daryl Gates.
The officer involved in this particular case of surveillance and harassment was suspended for six months.
Journalist John Sweeney reported that "While making our BBC Panorama film Scientology and Me I have been shouted at, spied on, had my hotel invaded at midnight, denounced as a 'bigot' by star Scientologists, brain-washed—that is how it felt to me—in a mock up of a Nazi -style torture chamber and chased round the streets of Los Angeles by sinister strangers".
During the auditing process, the auditor collects and records personal information from the client. While the Church of Scientology claims to protect the confidentiality of auditing records, the organization has a history of attacking and psychologically abusing former members using information culled from the records.
The practice of shunning in Scientology is termed "disconnection". Members can disconnect from any person they already know, including existing family members.
Many examples of this policy's application have been established in court. The Sea Org originally operated on vessels at sea where it was understood that it was not permitted to raise children on board the ships.
Ron Hubbard to convince them that having an abortion was not against Scientology practices. In , The Times of India reported "Forced abortions, beatings, starvation are considered tools of discipline in this church [sic]".
A former high-ranking source reports that "some 1, abortions" have been "carried out by women in the Sea Organization since the implementation of a rule in the late 80s that members could not remain in the organization if they decided to have children".
Longtime member Astra Woodcraft reportedly "left Scientology for good when the church tried to pressure her to have an abortion".
In March , Maureen Bolstad reported that women who worked at Scientology's headquarters were forced to have abortions, or faced being declared a " Suppressive Person " by the organization's management.
It was my baby, my body and my choice, and all of that was taken away from me by Scientology," said Lang.
Australian Senator Nick Xenophon gave a speech to the Australian Parliament in November , about statements he had received from former Scientologists.
If they refused, they faced demotion and hard labour. Aaron says one staff member used a coat hanger and self-aborted her child for fear of punishment," said Senator Xenophon.
Scientology spokesman Tommy Davis dismissed such claims as "utterly meritless". A number of women have sued the Church of Scientology, alleging a variety of complaints including human trafficking, rape, forced labor, and child abuse.
In the s, Miscavige's organization took action against increased criticism of Scientology on the Internet and online distribution of Scientology-related documents.
Starting in , Scientology filed fifty lawsuits against Scientology-critic Cult Awareness Network CAN. In a U. In January , Church of Scientology lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgroup alt.
However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates. The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web , and lobbied for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general.
The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act as well as the even more controversial Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA.
Beginning in the middle of and ensuing for several years, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed sporgery by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group.
Some investigators said that some spam had been traced to members of the Church of Scientology. On January 14, , a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube.
On January 28, , an Anonymous video appeared on YouTube calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, The Arbitration Committee of the Wikipedia internet encyclopedia decided in May to restrict access to its site from Church of Scientology IP addresses, to prevent self-serving edits by Scientologists.
The legal status of Scientology or Scientology-related organizations differs between jurisdictions. The Church of Scientology argues that Scientology is a genuine religious movement that has been misrepresented, maligned, and persecuted.
The Church of Scientology has often encountered opposition due to its strong-arm tactics directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization.
In , the Church of Scientology of California was granted tax-exempt status by the United States Internal Revenue Service IRS , and so, for a time, were other local branches of the organization.
In the mid-sixties, the Church of Scientology was banned in several Australian states, starting with Victoria in On this point the report stated, .
It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetic techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names.
The Australian Church was forced to operate under the name of the " Church of the New Faith " as a result, the name and practice of Scientology having become illegal in the relevant states.
In the High Court of Australia ruled in a unanimous decision that the Church of Scientology was "undoubtedly a religion and deserving of tax exemption".
In , the IRS removed Scientology's tax-exempt status, asserting that its activities were commercial and operated for the benefit of Hubbard, rather than for charitable or religious purposes.
Scientology is officially recognized as a religion in the United States. Church of Scientology International in The New York Times noted in this connection that the Church of Scientology had funded a campaign which included a whistle-blower organization to publicly attack the IRS, as well as hiring of private investigators to look into the private lives of IRS officials.
Goldberg Jr. Goldberg's response was quite out of the ordinary: he created a special working group to resolve the dispute, bypassing the agency's exempt organizations division.
The group met several times with the Scientology legal team and, according to an unnamed official quoted by the New York Times , "was persuaded that those involved in the Snow White crimes had been purged, that church [sic] money was devoted to tax-exempt purposes and that, with Mr.
Hubbard's death, no one was getting rich from Scientology. The organization was required only to resubmit new applications for exemption to the IRS Exempt Organizations EO division, which was told "not to consider any substantive matters" because those issues had been resolved by the committee.
Elsewhere, Scientology is recognized as a religion in Australia,   Portugal,  Spain,  Slovenia ,  Sweden,    Croatia ,  Hungary  and Kyrgyzstan.
Scientology is not recognized as a religion in Canada. The ruling ended a five-year legal battle by Scientologist Louisa Hodkin, who sought the legal right to marry at the Church of Scientology chapel in central London.
The opinion by five supreme court justices redefined religion in law, rendering the definition "out of date" in restricting religious worship to "reverence or veneration of God or of a Supreme Being".
Scientology has been accused of being "a business, often given to criminal acts, and sometimes masquerading as a religion".
In conjunction with the Church of Scientology's request to be officially recognized as a religion in Germany, around the German state Baden-Württemberg conducted a thorough investigation of the group's activities within Germany.
Course offerings ranged from German Marks DM Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membership offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless placed in the millions.
Defending its practices against accusations of profiteering , the organization has countered critics by drawing analogies to other religious groups who have established practices such as tithing , or require members to make donations for specific religious services.
Since Germany has considered Scientology to be in conflict with the principles of the nation's constitution. It is seen as an anticonstitutional sect and a new version of political extremism and because there is "evidence for intentions against the free democratic basic order" it is observed by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution.
Department of State said that Scientologists were discriminated against in Germany, but condemned the comparisons to the Nazis' treatment of Jews as extremely inappropriate, as did a United Nations Special Rapporteur.
State Department formally criticized Germany for discriminating against Scientologists and began to note Scientologists' complaints of harassment in its annual human rights reports,  as well as the annual International Religious Freedom Reports it has released from onwards.
France and Belgium have not recognized Scientology as a religion, and Stephen A. Kent , writing in , noted that recognition had not been obtained in Ireland , Luxembourg , Israel or Mexico either.
In Greece, Scientology is not recognized as a religion by the Greek government, and multiple applications for religious status have been denied, notably in and In the Netherlands , Scientology was granted tax exempt status in October The court ruled that because auditing fees and course costs were more expensive than most commercial education institutions, Scientology appeared to be aimed at making a profit.
The Church of Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names. It claims copyright and trademark over its " Scientology cross ", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites.
The Church of Scientology seeks to make it very difficult for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own , independent of the official Church of Scientology.
Scientology has filed suit against a number of individuals who have attempted to set up their own auditing practices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down.
The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars.
Most recently the Italian Supreme Court agreed with the American IRS that the organization's financial system is analogous to the practices of other groups and not out of line with its religious purposes.
In November , Australian Senator Nick Xenophon used a speech in Federal Parliament to allege that the Church of Scientology is a criminal organization.
Based on letters from former followers of the religion, he said that there were "allegations of forced imprisonment, coerced abortions, and embezzlement of church funds [sic], of physical violence and intimidation, blackmail and the widespread and deliberate abuse of information obtained by the organization".
Describing the available scholarship on Scientology, David G. Bromley and Douglas E. Cowan stated in that "most scholars have concluded that Scientology falls within the category of religion for the purposes of academic study, and a number have defended the Church [sic] in judicial and political proceedings on this basis.
Urban writes that "Scientology's efforts to get itself defined as a religion make it an ideal case study for thinking about how we understand and define religion.
According to the Encyclopedia of Religious Controversies in the United States , "even as Scientology raises questions about how and who gets to define religion, most scholars recognize it as a religion, one that emerges from and builds on American individualism and the spiritual marketplace that dominated s America.
Bromley comments that Scientology "could gain strength by adding to the new perspective on existence, the hope and human meaning that only a transcendent creed can give".
Bromley and Cowan noted in that Scientology's attempts "to gain favor with new religion scholars" had often been problematic.
Regis Dericquesbourg writes about the efficacy of Scientology in imparting knowledge: "Scientology indeed not only brings knowledge, it also brings personal introspection through auditing, and transmission in upper levels is not merely reading texts: what is transmitted is experienced through a solo or duo auditing experience.
Frank K. Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington University in St. Louis wrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typical forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritual life.
While acknowledging that a number of his colleagues accept Scientology as a religion, sociologist Stephen A. Kent writes: "Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one element of which is religious" [emphasis in the original].
Donna Batten in the Gale Encyclopedia of American Law writes, "A belief does not need to be stated in traditional terms to fall within First Amendment protection.
For example, Scientology—a system of beliefs that a human being is essentially a free and immortal spirit who merely inhabits a body—does not propound the existence of a supreme being, but it qualifies as a religion under the broad definition propounded by the Supreme Court.
Gordon Melton asserts that while the debate over definitions of religion will continue, "scholars will probably continue in the future to adopt a broad definition, thus including Scientology in a wider religious field.
The material contained in the OT levels has been characterized as bad science fiction by critics, while others claim it bears structural similarities to gnostic thought and ancient Hindu beliefs of creation and cosmic struggle.
Scholar Luigi Berzano of the University of Turin listed five religious characteristics of Scientology: a set of doctrines leading to a spiritual goal, a community of believers, an authority figure Hubbard , ritual practices, and "an ethical-moral view of life".
Hubbard grew up in a climate that was very critical of organized religion, and frequently quoted anti-religious sentiments in his early lectures.
Hubbard did not want to found a religion: he discovered that what he was talking about in fact was religion. This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memories from former lives.
He had to defend himself about this to his friends. He notes that Hubbard discussed religion and the concept of God even in the years leading up to the emergence of Scientology, and that he did not "rush into religion" but rather, "discovered it through the development of his work with pre-clears".
Drawing parallels to similar struggles for identity in other religious movements such as Theosophy and Transcendental Meditation , Frenschkowski sees in Hubbard's lectures "the case of a man whose background was non-religious and who nevertheless discovers that his ideas somehow oscillate between 'science' in a very popular sense , 'religion' and 'philosophy', and that these ideas somehow fascinate so many people that they start to form a separate movement".
Hubbard experiments with traditional religious language in a short piece written in called "The Factors", "a basic expression of Scientologist cosmology and metaphysics", reprinted in current Scientology literature.
Frenschkowski observes that the text is partly biblical in structure and that this development is a component of Scientology's metamorphosis into a religion, written at a point when the nature of the new movement was unclear.
The Church of Scientology denounces the idea of Hubbard starting a religion for personal gain as an unfounded rumor.
It appears in a letter by Eric Blair known the world as George Orwell to his friend, Jack Common, dated February February 16, , and was published in Collected Essays, Journalism and Letters of George Orwell , vol.
Scientology can be seen as a UFO religion in which the existence of extraterrestrial entities operating unidentified flying objects UFOs are an element of belief.
In this context, it is discussed in UFO Religions by Christopher Partridge,  and The Encyclopedic Sourcebook of UFO Religions by James R.
Lewis ,  while Susan Palmer draws several parallels with Raelianism. Scientology is unique within the UFO culture because of this secretiveness, as well as because of the capitalist format under which they operate.
Scientology is also difficult to categorize. While it bears strong similarities to the Ashtar Command or the Aetherius Society , its emphasis upon the Xenu event as the central message of the group seems to place them within the ancient astronaut tradition.
Auch Nicole Kidman war viele Jahre eine Anhängerin der umstrittenen Sekte. Materialen 2. Unabhängig davon wird Auditing billiger, wenn man gleich mehrere dieser Intensive kauft.
Auf dem sogenannten Solo Kurs Part I lernt man, wie man sich unter Zuhilfenahme des scientologischen E-Meters selbst auditiert, was mit 4. Dann gibt es noch ein Package aller fünf Kurse um 8.
Im Package gekauft bekommt man alle fünf um die bereits bekannten 8. Der heutige Verein mit Sitz in München wurde am Oktober gegründet. Der Bundesgerichtshof für Zivilsachen hat noch nicht explizit zu dieser Frage Stellung genommen, ist jedoch in einer Entscheidung aus dem Jahr implizit davon ausgegangen, dass es sich bei Scientology um eine Religions- bzw.
Weltanschauungsgemeinschaft handele. Weltanschauungsgemeinschaft ansieht. Eine Klage gegen die Beobachtung wurde aus formalen Gründen abgewiesen.
Die Scientology-Kirche spricht in diesem Zusammenhang von einer massiven Verfolgung und Diskriminierung von Scientology-Anhängern in Deutschland, die in Widerspruch zum Menschenrecht auf Religionsfreiheit stehe.
In Österreich ist die Anerkennung als Religionsgemeinschaft vorrangig für das Abgabenrecht , das gemeinnützige, mildtätige und kirchliche Einrichtungen begünstigt, von Belang.
Der Verein ist an einem Leistungsaustausch interessiert. Er bietet gegen Entgelt Mitgliedschaftsstufen verschiedener Grade, Kurse und Seminare verschiedener Höhe sowie das Auditing an.
Die Frage der Mitgliedschaft tritt zwangsläufig in den Hintergrund, weil jeder, der sich der entgeltlichen Dienste des Beschwerdeführers bedient, Mitglied des Beschwerdeführers wird.
Gefördert wird in erster Linie, wer die entgeltlichen Dienste des Beschwerdeführers in Anspruch nimmt. Im Jahr erkannten die österreichischen Steuerbehörden allerdings den gemeinnützigen Charakter der Scientology-Kirche in Wien an und erteilten ihr eine entsprechende Steuerbefreiung.
In Österreich dürfte es laut Angaben von Wilfried Handl ca. AnonAustria gab im Juni bekannt, den gesamten Mailverkehr der Jahre und der Scientology Kirche Österreich erbeutet zu haben.
Armstrong Church of Scientology International v. Fishman and Geertz Church of Scientology International v. Time Warner, Inc. Church of Scientology Moscow v.
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Netcom On-Line Communication Services, Inc. Church of Scientology of Toronto United States v. Hubbard X. Cadet Org Celebrity Centre Church of Scientology Church of Scientology International Church of Spiritual Technology Free Zone Gold Base The Hole Hubbard Association of Scientologists International International Association of Scientologists L.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons. Suomi Edit links. Kirstie Alley. Actress    .
Anne Archer. Actress mother of former Scientology spokesperson Tommy Davis . Emily Armstrong. Musician . Jennifer Aspen. Actress  . James Barbour.
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Actress and musician;     a third-generation-Scientologist; her grandmother worked as a governess for the children of Scientology founder L.
Ron Hubbard . Erika Christensen. Actress, raised Scientologist   . Stanley Clarke. Musician and composer . Tom Constanten. Former keyboardist for the Grateful Dead   .
Chick Corea. Musician    . Tom Cruise. Actor      . Sky Dayton. Founder of EarthLink  .
Doug Dohring. Ex-owner of Neopets . Jason Dohring. Actor, raised Scientologist . Robert Duggan. Billionaire investor and CEO .
Im deutschsprachigen Raum ist der Österreicher Wilfried Handl ein bekannter Aussteiger und aktiver Kritiker von Scientology. Von Kritikern werden Scientologys Praktiken als Manipulationstechniken betrachtet.
Zentral im kritischen Scientology-Diskurs sind sogenannte Gehirnwäsche -Theorien. Seltener wird Scientology wegen des Gebrauchs von Hypnosetechniken kritisiert.
Während Hubbard in Dianetik Hypnose ablehnt,  sprach der Report für die australische Regierung im Jahr davon, dass beim Auditing hypnotisierende Techniken eingesetzt werden.
Der OCA-Test sei zwar kostenfrei, jedoch pseudowissenschaftlich und diene lediglich der Mitgliederwerbung.
Das Gericht blieb unter den Anträgen der Anklage und lehnte auch ein Verbot von Scientology ab. Ehemalige Mitglieder hatten Scientology die Ausnutzung ihrer auf einer Lebenskrise gründenden damaligen seelischen Notlage vorgeworfen.
Dadurch leicht beeinflussbar und leichtgläubig, seien sie zu hohen Ausgaben für Kurse, Bücher und Medikamente genötigt worden.
Die Strategie der Scientology, gesellschaftlichen Einfluss zu gewinnen — so ein weiterer Vorwurf — mache ausgiebigen Gebrauch von oft kurzlebigen Tarnorganisationen und der gezielten Unterwanderung bestehender Organisationen.
Ein von Hubbard erstellter Plan hätte beispielsweise die Infiltrierung der amerikanischen Steuer- und Justizbehörden sowie der Medien zum Ziel gehabt; die Infiltrierung der Steuerbehörden gelang den Scientologen in den 70er-Jahren vorübergehend.
Eine Ausnahme bildet eine Studie aus dem Jahr zur Entwicklung der Scientology im ukrainischen Charkiw , wonach der dortige Scientology-Ableger teilnehmenden Personen vermutlich geholfen hat, sich besser im postkommunistischen Alltag zurechtzufinden.
Vertreter von Scientology haben wiederholt den Vorwurf erhoben, die Organisation beziehungsweise Mitglieder derselben seien in Deutschland Opfer von Diskriminierung.
Ähnliche Vorwürfe wurden teilweise auch von offiziellen Stellen in den USA erhoben. Urban: Fair Game: Secrecy, Security, and the Church of Scientology in Cold War America.
In: Journal of the American Academy of Religion. Richardson: Scientology in Court: A Look at Some Major Cases from Various Nations. In: James R.
Lewis Hrsg. Oxford University Press, Oxford , S. In: www. Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, 4. Juli , S. Januar Gordon Melton: Birth of a Religion.
Oxford University Press, Oxford , ISBN , S. Church of Scientology International, , abgerufen am April New York , S. Beckford: Cult Controversies: The Societal Response to New Religious Movements.
Tavistock, London , S. In: Sociology. Anima Publishing, Stockport , S. In: Social Compass. National and Minority Religions in Post-communist Society.
In: Facta Universitas. In: The Independent. April , S. Davidson-Schmich, K. Hartmann, U. Mummert: You Can Lead a Horse to Water, But You Can't Always Make it Drink: Positive Freedom in the Aftermath of German Unification.
In: Communist and Post-Communist Studies. In: The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Juli englisch, post-gazette. Flinn: Scientology.
In: Live Diskussion. Washington Post. Juli englisch, Online [abgerufen am Januar ].Priscilla Presley. Church of Scientology International. Karen Black. It's Mika Häkkinen in a safe environment and the counselor has a Schmarotzer Mensch of conduct. Archived from the original on June 7,